This sounds a lot like an issue I have had with aluminum Macbook pros from 2010-2012 when installing an SSD. Works for a few hours to days, then question-mark icons leading to missing or corrupted files appears, and as time goes one they increase in number until booting no longer works. I read lots of threads about replacing SATA cables, which works for some, others not so. One article identified that this was almost always happening to people AFTER installing an SSD, and only AFTER placing the SSD into the machine. The writer suggested placing electrical tape on the flat aluminum part of the case so as to isolate the flat SATA cable from rubbing against the metal case, which they determined was causing data transmission issues leading to file corruption. I don’t know about the explanation, but after a very temporary success and then sudden, familiar failure with a newly purchased SATA cable, I did the tape trick and there was no corruption issues after that. About a year later, I had the same issues with a new SSD install on a 2012 Macbook Pro, installed that SATA cable from a few years ago, problem arose again, but after installing the tape…SUCCESS.
For whatever reason, SSD of at least two brands (Samsun and Corsair) have seemed to have a succeptibility to data corruption with the internal SATA cable directly pressed against the case.
Cable quality and newness may be a factor, but the issue can happen with some new and previously working SATA cables alike, well, I don’t consider a new SATA cable as a go-to solution in the future. All of my aluminum case Macbook Pro upgrades get the electrical tape treatment nowadays.