Does computer work with just battery? Charger possibly defective. Alternatively, try taking out battery and plugin charger. Does computer work now? If so battery could be dead or defective. Are there any beep sounds when turning on?
Unplug power supply. Press power button until fans stop. Reset BIOS. You don’t state which HP desktop model. There is usually a jumper to short to clear BIOS to factory default. Often near Front Panel connectors. Plug-in power cable and switch on. How did it go?
The common cause is corruption of drivers. Much, much more common than any hardware defect. This has worked a number of times for me: (1) Completely uninstall graphics drivers. (2) I use DDU (Display Driver Uninstaller) which has a mode for AMD or Nvidia drivers (Majorgeeks.com is a good download site). (3) Shut down and reboot. Re-install latest graphics driver. Personally, I run Ccleaner and Advanced System Care to clean any “stray” settings that may have been corrupted. But DDU alone is probably fine. Let us know how it goes. For other readers. I have had this problem, especially, when I have switched graphics cards.
Video drivers, in my experience, can produce all kinds of strange errors. If you can boot up in ‘Safe Mode’ try uninstalling the video driver and let it re-boot to Microsft’s generic driver and work from there. Yes would agree that a heat issue would still occur in ‘safe mode’ but….you never know. There are many causes of boot errors. Corruption, failing drive, etc. Is it still not booting in ‘Safe Mode’? Can you make a USB boot drive with Windows installation and attempt the boot repairs? Let us know how it goes.
You will need a SATA to USB cable and some cloning software. EaseUS Todo Backup Free is one example. There are others. The below link will show you how to physically replace the drive. Toshiba Satellite CL15t-B1204X Hard Drive Replacement
David, If you have to ask how to upgrade the BIOS don't even think of "Corebooting". I mean it is up to you, but....???? If you must have a look on Lenovo web site: https://pcsupport.lenovo.com/nz/en/produ...-and-netbooks/thinkpad-x-series-laptops/thinkpad-x230/downloads/ds029187