Hyperthetically you could, but would be near impossible without a 3D scan of the internals of the housing to do so. You would also need to use a 3D printing technology that has a high resolution such as sla or Sls, which firstly comes with their inherent surface finishes, but secondly are quite pricey as processes (not something you print on a home printer). And then even if you get around those issues, you would then have to remove the existing components without further damaging them and assembling them in the correct order and then apply your own glue. It's all possible, but much better off spending your money on a new pair...
I'm actually more interesting in how the ear buds plastic housing component is made....it's seamless on the outside, yet houses a complex assembly inside. Injection moulding can't do this in one piece, and there is too much air inside to be over moulded. Maybe two pieces glued together then polished?