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Apple最新的MacBook Pro是有史以来性能最好的,提供可选的8核处理器——MacBook里的一个首次——并且带来了新的神秘的键盘材料。正因为Apple没有解释新“材料”新在哪里,我们继续为揭示答案而欢欣鼓舞。是时候once again继续研究臭名昭著的蝶式键盘了!带上你的侦探帽,跟着我们拆解这款电脑吧!

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这个拆解是不是维修指南。 要维修你的的MacBook Pro 15" Touch Bar 2019,请使用我们的维修手册

  1. 纸面上,2019年新款的 Macbook Pro 只是一次性能上的升级——但是性能究竟有提升多少呢?让我们一探究竟: 拥有原彩显示技术的15.4寸LED IPS视网膜屏幕,2880x1800分辨率(220dpi像素密度),P3广色域
    • 纸面上,2019年新款的 Macbook Pro 只是一次性能上的升级——但是性能究竟有提升多少呢?让我们一探究竟:

    • 拥有原彩显示技术的15.4寸LED IPS视网膜屏幕,2880x1800分辨率(220dpi像素密度),P3广色域

    • 2.6GHz 6核Intel Core i7(睿频达到4.5GHz),与之匹配的是Radeon Pro 555X GPU

    • 16GB 2400MHz DDR4 SDRAM

    • 256GB 基于PCIe的SSD

    • 802.11ac Wi-Fi和蓝牙5.0

    • 4个雷雳3(USB-C)接口

    • 我们拆解的这台机器拥有熟悉的模具型号:A1990,但是拥有了新的电磁兼容性编号:3359

    I have found apple products very robust for my business. I work on heavy web design and ``Graphic Design`` work with no problems. In some cases I had to upgrade to more RAM or to SSD disk form buying products from ifixit.com and that extended the life of my MACs even more. I have an Imac and a mac book pro for more than 10 years now.

    JCSL - 回复

  2. 上次我们用了两个不同的拆解品搞清了如何进入这类机器的内部——所以仅此一次,我们跳过了熟悉的流程。 就像一电视上的烹饪节目一样,我们把细枝都剪掉,只讲末节——瞧,它打开了! 如果你好奇如何进入机器内部,这跟2018款的流程一模一样······我们已经有一份指南了!
    • 上次我们用了两个不同的拆解品搞清了如何进入这类机器的内部——所以仅此一次,我们跳过了熟悉的流程。

    • 就像一电视上的烹饪节目一样,我们把细枝都剪掉,只讲末节——瞧,它打开了!

    • 如果你好奇如何进入机器内部,这跟2018款的流程一模一样······我们已经有一份指南了!

    • 跟预测的一致,这基本上看起来就是一次性能上的升级——硬件看起来与之前的款式并无区别。让我们拆下主板仔细端详一番。

  3. “得益于”一体化的设计,主板上没有任何可以升级的硬件。一旦买了下来,你就只能使用这些芯片,直到它们光荣退休: 第九代因特尔酷睿i7-9750H 6核处理器
    • “得益于”一体化的设计,主板上没有任何可以升级的硬件。一旦买了下来,你就只能使用这些芯片,直到它们光荣退休:

    • 第九代因特尔酷睿i7-9750H 6核处理器

    • 16倍速海力士 H5AN8G8NAFR 8Gb DDR4 SDRAM (共计16GB)

    • AMD Radeon Pro 555X GPU芯片(独立显卡)

    • 4乘 Micron MT51J256M32HF-70:B 8 Gb GDDR5 显存(共计4GB)

    • Apple T2 APL1027 339S00533 协处理器,被覆盖在1 GB Micron D9VLN LPDDR4 记忆芯片上

    • 东芝 TSB3226AW8815TWNA1 和TSB3226XZ2939TWNA1 闪存芯片(共计256GB)

    • Intel JHL7540 雷电3控制器

    You folks have probably explained this elsewhere, but can you confirm that the SSDs Apple is using are open-market consumer-grade drives? The rationale behind their high upgraded-drive pricing is that there’s some sort of added Apple-specific value. Is there any?

    Moeskido - 回复

    @moeskido1 They don’t use an SSD in the ordinary use of the term—their flash storage chips are BGA-soldered directly to the logic board (as shown in the image above) and SSD controller functions are handled by Apple’s custom T2 chip. The upside is very fast read/write speeds and low power consumption, with the obvious downside being the complete lack of repair, upgrade, and data recovery options. And it’s hard to ignore how it benefits Apple at the expense of their customers, since you have to pay through the nose to future-proof the storage capacity.

    Jeff Suovanen -

    @jeffsu Is there any any other benefit to be had? Is this storage sourced from, say, enterprise-grade stock or otherwise modified in any way that would matter to the consumer?

    Moeskido - 回复

    “16 GB of 2400 MHz DDR4 SDRAM”

    vs

    “4x Micron MT51J256M32HF-70:B 8 Gb GDDR5 RAM (4 GB total)”

    Shouldn’t the RAM description in the layout breakdown be more like 4 4Gb chips for a total of 16 GB?

    shomizu9 - 回复

    Hi shomizu9,

    The 4GB Micron RAM is the video RAM, while the 16 GB SK Hynix RAM is the on-board system RAM.

    Arthur Shi -

  4. 请过目更多的芯片: 因特尔SR40F 平台控制集线器
    • 请过目更多的芯片:

    • 因特尔SR40F 平台控制集线器

    • 德州仪器 CD3215C00Z(疑似电源控制器)

    • 338S00267-A0 (疑似苹果(自家)电源管理芯片)

    • TPS51980A 电源控制器

    • 339S00458 (疑似苹果(自家) Wi-Fi/蓝牙模组)

    • Intersil 6277A PWM 调制器

    • 凌云逻辑 CS42L83A 音频编码解码器

    339S00458 is much likely WiFi/BT module.

    JJ Wu - 回复

  5. 终于来到键盘部分了!让我们先回顾一下蝴蝶键盘的前世今生。 首次亮相于2015款视网膜屏幕MacBook后,蝶式键盘也在2016年首次装配在了MacBook Pro产品线上(左图)。 原本为了让对按键的边缘敲击变得更加稀疏而设计的蝶式键盘,在实际使用中却因为它出乎预料的短键程颇受争议,但是不久之后事实证明蝶式键盘是值得信赖的。
    • 终于来到键盘部分了!让我们先回顾一下蝴蝶键盘的前世今生。

    • 首次亮相于2015款视网膜屏幕MacBook后,蝶式键盘也在2016年首次装配在了MacBook Pro产品线上(左图)。

    • 原本为了让对按键的边缘敲击变得更加稀疏而设计的蝶式键盘,在实际使用中却因为它出乎预料的短键程颇受争议,但是不久之后事实证明蝶式键盘是值得信赖的。

    • 在2018年夏天,Apple推出了一个维修计划,私自将按键堵塞归咎于细小的灰尘颗粒,并且发布了经过改进的在按键下方配备一张硅胶薄膜以保护按键免受灰尘侵袭的型号(中图)。但不幸的是问题仍然存在。

    • 最近,2019款蝶式键盘按键保留了硅胶薄膜,但是稍稍改进了弹性金属穹顶使用的材料和覆盖在穹顶结构上的塑胶材料。

  6. 现在我们梳理了来龙去脉,要开始一层一层的拆开2019款蝶式键盘按键的零件了。 在最上层拆下来的是键帽。这种键帽设计巧妙,以至于让人一眼就能看出来哪个按键损坏了。 这个白色的铰链式托架蝶式结构中用来控制按键运动的部分——保持稳定的上下移动它,千万不要四下晃动它,这样才能把它完美的拆下来。
    • 现在我们梳理了来龙去脉,要开始一层一层的拆开2019款蝶式键盘按键的零件了。

    • 在最上层拆下来的是键帽。这种键帽设计巧妙,以至于让人一眼就能看出来哪个按键损坏了。

    • 这个白色的铰链式托架蝶式结构中用来控制按键运动的部分——保持稳定的上下移动它,千万不要四下晃动它,这样才能把它完美的拆下来。

    • 垫在托架里面的是一个透明的盖子,用来阻止污垢进入穹顶式托架,并且在每次按下按键的时候收缩。它中间的黑色圆点用来集中你敲击按键的力量。

    • 这个组合的主角是有弹性的锅仔片。它在按键按下的时候变形,将压力传递给六个底板上的触点,然后在你不按按键的时候将按键弹回原位。

    • 在锅仔片下面是六个金属垫片,其中任何一个垫片短路时都会触发按键记录器,以输入字符。

    • 总结一下,硅胶薄膜盖住蝶式键盘的机械结构以阻止污垢进入按键,把按键塞住。

    Possibly, the change of material to a near-transparent material will allow more light to pass through? So the backlighting system can be brighter? Just guessing

    KillerLab 233 - 回复

    question: does anything on the machine/keyboard (aside from the key at at the end) clip into or attach to the transparent cover with he dome switch? trying to replace this entire piece and not sure how to get the entire thing from falling off!

    Amanda - 回复

  7. 所以,今年改进了什么地方?首先,就是透明护盖的材料。 2018款蝶式键盘中,这个零件的制造材料并不是透明的,有些发粘,甚至像硅胶一样粘。新款的键盘里,这个零件更加透明,摸起来更加光滑了。 为了确认两种材料完全不一样,我们使用傅氏转换红外线光谱分析仪分析了这两个零件。特别鸣谢Eric Beaton和Cal Poly的材料工程部门的设备和专业知识!
    • 所以,今年改进了什么地方?首先,就是透明护盖的材料。

    • 2018款蝶式键盘中,这个零件的制造材料并不是透明的,有些发粘,甚至像硅胶一样粘。新款的键盘里,这个零件更加透明,摸起来更加光滑了。

    • 为了确认两种材料完全不一样,我们使用傅氏转换红外线光谱分析仪分析了这两个零件。特别鸣谢Eric Beaton和Cal Poly的材料工程部门的设备和专业知识!

    • 傅氏转换红外线光谱分析通过用红外线光束照射材料和测量材料在是什么波长上吸收了多少光线来得出结论。这个数据就像指纹一样独一无二,从而能够区分不同的材料。

    • 两个材料样本的光谱不同的波峰和波谷显示,它们是不同的材料,但是它们是什么材料呢?

    • 在把光谱与已知的聚合物材料对比以后,与2018款最匹配的材料的既不是芳香族聚氨酯,也不是一种TPU材料(当然,更接近TPU一些);与2019款最匹配的是聚酰胺(尼龙一类的东西 )。

    • 这些结果没有告诉我们的是,Apple工程师通过改变材料想要解决的是什么问题。请告诉我们你的点子吧!

    The 2018 tackiness likely makes dust stick better. Thanks for using science here. FTIR looks like a much better instrument than the monochromator based instruments I used back in the day.

    John Lam - 回复

    Great research guys!

    Only on iFixit would you get this level of detail!

    Dan - 回复

    Didn’t a recent reddit post and experiment confirms it has nothing to do with dust ( And Heat ) ? And the problem hasn't been fixed after three years suggest no one really knows what the causes were.

    K Sec - 回复

    Following the theory that heat accelerated key failure a switch to a different material would make sense if its melting point was higher. Some quick googling indicates nylon has high temperature resistance.

    Joeri Sebrechts - 回复

    According to this site, nylon endures repeated flexing better than polyurethane.

    jimmy.cerra - 回复

    Poly(acetylene) doesn't make a lot of sense for a component like this. I suspect that the 2018 material is probably a more conventional thermoplastic polyurethane. TPU has that tacky, silicone-like quality and doesn't withstand heat as well as nylon.

    jwang158 - 回复

    Makes sense! The match with the second-highest HQI was Cytor 7040 (as you can see in the screen capture)—which as you correctly pointed out is a type of TPU. We updated the teardown accordingly. Thanks for your comment!

    Jeff Suovanen -

    A single key of my 2017 13” MBP failed, and the culprit turned out to be the black paint that helps the backlight diffuse more evenly throughout the keytop. It was the paint that had flaked off and jammed the key rather than any external dust. So look to the formulation of the black paint and its adherence to the type of plastic as an element in this problem. It appears that the plastic flexes when you press the key, and if the paint adherence is poor or the paint is too rigid, there is a non-zero chance it will break off and float around, causing trouble.

    Graeme Gill - 回复

    Interesting that they went with Polyamide, which is comonly known as Nylon 6. One problem with Nylon 6, which is used widely in under-the-hood applications in automotive sector, is that it retains moisture really well. Not sure if apple is using different materials based on different geographics (countries) because moisture retention can lead to swelling and with such small component, any kind of swelling can impact the mechanism.

    Deepak Sharma - 回复

    Le matériau de 2018 et collant donc retiens les micros poussières celui de 2019 lisse les laisse glisser et en plus il est plus résistant et rebondi mieux en reprenant ça forme initiale.

    craquouille.nounouille - 回复

    If they used a special PA such as EMS Grilamid TR on the cover, moisture absorption should be no issue.

    Sam Panton - 回复

    Forget tearing down lame consumer gear, let’s teardown that FTIR analyzer.

    jak p - 回复

    PhD in polymer engineering here. I think the black dot that concentrates the force of your key press onto the switch shifts a bit due to fatigue or thermal expansion (or may even wear off), and the key either don’t register or registers twice. See this video which demonstrates the role of the black dot: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zIwooQAg...

    Changing the material to nylon will make the cover more rigid and less prone to deformation thermally or under load, which means that the black dot will remain in the center and the dome is pressed evenly.

    This video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nob5MLYG...) shows that when the machine is hot, the keys make load noises as seen in the previous video mentioned, which indicates that temperature really does shift the black dot from the center.

    Mehdi Ataei - 回复

  8. 还有什么改变的呢?也许是这个金属穹顶吧!靠近点看看。 这个穹顶就像一个极其小巧的果酱盖或者说······蛇帽——你把它压下去以后它能够弹回来。 如果穹顶发生了任何改变——比如裂开或者变形——按键按下去的时候会不平稳。同样的,如果上面的尖齿碎裂或者变弯了,按键会直接玩完。
    • 还有什么改变的呢?也许是这个金属穹顶吧!靠近点看看。

    • 这个穹顶就像一个极其小巧的果酱盖或者说······蛇帽——你把它压下去以后它能够弹回来。

    • 如果穹顶发生了任何改变——比如裂开或者变形——按键按下去的时候会不平稳。同样的,如果上面的尖齿碎裂或者变弯了,按键会直接玩完。

    • 有无数种原因能够让这些零件开裂或者磨损——量产缺陷,金属疲劳,长时间的高温,湿气或者其他零件的损坏,甚至是腐蚀,这些都是问题的根源。

    • 在这些原因中的数个因素导致按键玩完是完全有可能的,哪一个能够解释Apple花费如此多的力气去解决这个按键失灵的问题呢?第四次是女人的魅力???

    • 这些零件在工厂中也被磁化了。对它们的构成,最好的解释是:在底部套上聚合物的铁素体不锈钢。在2018款(左)和2019款(右)之间零件表面的区别显示Apple可能使用了热工艺处理,或者合金材料,又或者两者共存。

    When the snap dome switches my company was using started to fail well before our 3 million cycle test goal, it turned out to be a couple of problems. We weren’t using a hard gold (alloy) plating on our PCB and the snap domes, instead of being the usual round shape, had legs much wider than the Apple snap domes.

    The sharp corners of the legs on our snap domes wore through the gold plating, and the stainless/copper interface corroded so that we lost electrical contact.

    Maybe the Apple snap dome legs scrape along the gold surfaces and either kick up contaminants that prevent electrical contact in the middle, or eventually wear through the gold and cause corrosion at the leg contact points. The corrosion only has to occur at the very end of the button travel (legs splayed as much as possible) to prevent electrical contact.

    If we assume they’re pretty competent people at Apple, it would be easy enough for them to diagnose that and fix those corrosion and wear issues. So maybe it’s not that.

    Mark H - 回复

    Oops, I stand corrected. There isn’t necessarily any electrical contact through the legs of their snap domes. It’s the center four bumps that are the electrical contacts, the upper two that have minimal sliding force.

    Mark H - 回复

    The center of the dome still has 2 contacts so we will still get double key presses. Wonder why this dome has a 1 center contact: https://i.imgur.com/LAM75Lz.jpg

    Malcolm Hall - 回复

    I had a great uncle that worked on computers that ran typesetting systems back in the 1960s and 70s. They had problems with key-bounce back then. I forget what the solution was, but I think software probably smoothes out a lot of these kind of problems these days. I worked on a keyboard that dated from the late 1960s for a video titler system from a company called Telemation. The keyboard was a matrix of very large switches with magnetic reed switches and plungers with magnets on the ends. After 17 or so years, the reed switches became magnetized and you would just get a full screen of a single letter pressed.

    Scott Thomas - 回复

  9. 这就是我所有要写的东西!
    • 这就是我所有要写的东西!

    • 或者说“这都是什么垃圾玩意儿”!

    • 目前为止,至少是这样的。我们喜欢从听众里的材料工程师那里听到任何新消息,我们更愿意得到各位观众老爷手里任何废掉的蝶式按键,并且看一眼。

    • 相比之下,这台笔记本电脑的基本问题仍然存在——如果微不足道的按键出岔子,你都得换掉半个电脑的零件。甚至,即使这次你的键盘完美了,你还得冒险去换其他零件。我们的建议是什么呢?看看你干瘪的钱包吧。。。

    • 说了这么多,你应该能猜到这款笔记本电脑可维修指数垫底儿的地方在哪里了。

  10. 最后的想法
    • 触控板很轻松的就能移除并且换掉。
    • 处理器,内存,闪存芯片被焊在了主板上,扩容、升级都是痴心妄想。
    • 笔记本电脑的C面,包括键盘,电池,麦克风,还有触控栏,竟然用远古的胶水粘在一块儿!所以你别想单独更换这些零件了!
    • Touch ID (指纹ID)传感器兼做电源开关,并且与主板上的T2芯片配对。修复一个坏掉的电源开关可能需要来着苹果官方的帮助,或者一套全新的主板。
    可修复性评分
    1
    可修复性10分中得1分
    (10是最容易修复)

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“When comparing these FTIR spectra to that of known polymers, the closest match for the 2018 model is polyacetylene with aromatic urethane side groups, while the 2019 model uses polyamide (commonly known as nylon).

What this doesn't tell us is, just what problem Apple's engineers tried to solve using this updated material. Send us your ideas!”

Spitballing, any debris would have an easier time sliding through the nylon, while the 2018 model has a more sticky material.

tipoo - 回复

Hopefully making cleaning with canned air more effective.

Mark -

The plastic dome covers the contacts so you can’t really blow air into the gap. The covers are glued down to the base 360 degrees.

Dan -

Was eagerly anticipating this teardown as soon as the tech press announced the new MacBook Pros with yet another keyboard iteration.

Question: How are the butterfly mechanism and plastic cover attached to the top case? Are they merely held in place by the silicone membrane?

I could not tell if the membrane had to be cut in order to extract the butterfly mechanism and plastic dome.

Those two keys you disassembled, can they be re-assembled and have them function normally without the key falling off?

Carlos Perez - 回复

The thing that really holds it all together is the clear plastic cover piece with the black dot in the middle. That component both holds the dome in place on the PCB and provides the pivot points for the hinged white bracket that controls the keycap travel. Unfortunately, it’s essentially riveted in place from the back with plastic pegs, and prying it out is usually pretty destructive. (In other words, don’t try this at home!) The silicone dust membrane doesn’t have to be cut however, as it’s mainly around the perimeter and not over the top of the mechanism.

Jeff Suovanen -

@jeffsu - Can you post pics of the other side of the dome contact plate or tell us if the new ones are gold plated. Thanks!

Dan -

Top side of the dome is pictured in Step 8. ;)

Jeff Suovanen -

I guess we’ll need to wait another year before we get the old reliable keyboards back! So sad …

Dan - 回复

You’re quite the optimist there.

Don Whiteside -

What about the VRM overheating issue? Where is the VRM located on your teardowns? Is there any cooling being applied to the module?

David - 回复

If this proves to be reliable, then it will be just another proof that it is a better idea to stay away from 1st (or even 2nd) Generations of any Apple product. I could make an arm’s long list, but to make a just a few examples: 1st Gen 15” Retina MacBook Pro Mid-2012 / Early-2013 - GPU Problems, 1st Gen MacBook Air - messy internal arrangement, low performance and overheating, 1st Gen iPad, 1st Gen iPhone, 1st Gen Apple Watch. In all these products and many more, it is better to wait 1.5 or 2 years for an update that is “reliable”, more powerful and what not.

Marhowl - 回复

With one of the best engineering teams in the world, that they still make big errors like this and pretty much refuse to take responsibility or at least make it so others can do repairs is sad.

I like my old Macs but want to upgrade someday, at this point I hesitate.

Thank you iFixit for all your hard work detailing the differences and advocating 3rd party repair!

Russell Courtenay -

I amazed at how apple engages in these obvious anti-consumer, anti-repair engineering “solutions” and still maintains their customer base.

zackchimento - 回复

I'll tell you what keeps me in the customer base: macOS.

I spent the 80s with Apple computers and from 1990 until 2014 on Windows PCs. I've been back in the Apple universe for 5 years, and it's like heaven compared to the ongoing, exhausting (it bears repeating — exhausting) war I had with Windows. The prospect of being able to build my own computers and customize them to my heart's content was irresistable in my youth. But creating an OS that could run on any of the infinite configurations of PC parts, in the end, made Windows too easy to break. Torvalds got it; Gates and company did not, at least for my money. The thought of going back to Windows makes me shudder.

Ron Miller -

Ein Laptop wo man den Speicher nicht nachrüsten kann kommt mir gar nicht ins haus, Wieso bleibt apple nicht bei der Pci express Lösung. Da konnte der Nutzer die “festplatte” wenigstens noch selbst wechseln.

furious - 回复

Love the teardowns, and the repair guides to which I’ve referred numerous times.

That said, it really makes me sad to see Apple make iFixit become iPokeAroundInsideIt.

Haile Unlikely - 回复

I agree with Ron Miller’s comment above. The macOS (as well as integration with iOS, is what keeps me with Apple. I used MS Dos and Windows operating systems from the 1980s to 2013 and finally had enough, so I switched to Apple. I do get frustrated with Apple, and this butterfly keyboard debacle increases the level of frustration. I guess I’ll continue with my 2012 15” retina MBP for at least another year. It’s still going strong, though a little slow at times.

Many thanks for the teardown, iFixit.

Bill Moore - 回复

I also Agee with Ron Miller. I went through numerous iterations of Windows machines, from my first 386, to bigger and much more competent desktops, work stations, and some powerful laptops. Many hesitate to go with Apple, saying they’re too expensive, and they are, upfront. But there’s more to cost than upfront cost. With Windows machines I spent innumerable hours upon hours, maintaining, updating, protecting, and repairing them. Even if we don’t consider material costs, the hours lost count as costs that far exceed any difference in upfront costs for Apple products. Since time spent is how we get money to buy things, it doesn’t much matter whether we spend employment time, maintaining time, updating time, or protecting time. All time spent equals cost we’ve spent for any product. So are Apple products really more expensive? I don’t think so.

Ronald Sauve - 回复

As a long term apple customer…. i agree with you but there is a limit. These new keyboards have been failure prone for 4 years at this point. And i personally know people who have had multiple returns, the worst case being 3 returns inside 1 month of ownership for a friend who bought an original 2015 macbook and loved the machine if it wasn’t for the un-usable failure rate. He returned it and got a Macbook Pro 13” 2015 like mine. But now the alternative macbook keyboards do not exist.

jethro.rose -

Will most definitely NOT be buying until at least 12 months have passed and the failures have come out

In the meantime, my 2015 13” Pro soldiers on.

jethro.rose - 回复

If you do not need the portability the current line of iMacs are a pretty good value. I needed a faster machine then my aging 2015 Macbook Pro because I’m doing more and more video editing so I got the 8 core iMac and never looked back.

Ryan Villanueva - 回复

Has anyone disassembled a malfunctioning switch \ switches?

Have metal fatigue, cracks, bends, etc. been observed?

Have torn plastic domes been found?

Chris Waterman - 回复

I’m probably in the minority but I love the butterfly keyboard in my 2017 15” MBP, particularly the low-travel and clicky feedback. Did this keyboard modification alter the tactile typing experience?

Ken Suzuki - 回复

我想看2019款13英寸MacBook Pro 4雷雳口的拆解

季羿臣 - 回复

I am wondering how 8TB of storage and 64GB of RAM can fit in one of these. There doesn’t seem to be much left over space. I would love to see pictures of a maxed out one.

Chris Bennett - 回复

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